The Expert Workshop on the update of GHG emissions estimate for international shipping (Update-EW) took place at IMO from 26 February to 1 March 2013 under the chairmanship of Mr Andreas Chrysostomou (CYPRUS) who also chairs the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC). 28 Member Governments and 18 Observer Organisations were represented by over 100 participants in total, which included an InterManager contingent of the Secretary General, Captain Karkhanis (Videotel) and the Permrep.

Having adopted an agenda, the first 2 days of the workshop were devoted to a series of presentations as follows, also discussions designed to nurture agreement on how the Update Study should be undertaken in order to make recommendations to MEPC :

IMO Secretariat IMO Second GHG Study 2009

IEA IEA data on international marine bunkers

IPCC Methodology to estimate GHG emissions from International Shipping in IPCC Inventory Guidelines
University of Delaware
Methods for locating, estimating and updating 2009 global shipping emissions;
What is Robust, what merits Revisiting and what might be Revised?

UCL Energy Institute Data and methods for the bottom-up quantification of shipping’s emission intensity and emissions

Shanghai Maritime Vessel Activity Tracking and the Full Bottom-up Approach for Estimating Fuel Consultaion in

EMSA GHG Emissions from Ships –

EMSA ActivitiesMaritime & Energy Consulting Limited Estimating Bunker Consumption, History and Future
An Industry Related Methodology

Only 2 documents were submitted to the meeting, those by CHINA and GREECE. The former introduced its paper ‘Update – EW 1/2′ which essentially advocates that a bottom-up approach based on the estimation of fuel consumption of each individual vessel trip should be utilised to produce greater accuracy in arriving at fuel consumption. GREECE, on the other hand, argued for a top-down approach in its paper ‘Update – EW 1/2/1’, based on marine fuel sales.

All of these fascinating presentations and submissions will be posted on the IMO Website and they can be viewed by InterManager members. Anyone interested in doing so should get in touch with InterManager’s S-G who will furnish guidance or provide a link on how to do so. A full report of the meeting together with proposed Study Terms of Reference (TOR’s) can also be viewed on the same site. However, for the busy reader, following is a synopsis of the meeting and its outcome :

• PROPOSED UPDATE OF GHG EMISSIONS ESTIMATE (MEPC 64/5/5) The Expert Workshop (EW) noted that the 2009 GHG Study does not take into account the economic downtown experienced globally since 2008 and that reliable up to date information on which to base future decisions is needed. It was recognised that document MEPC 64/5/5 provides details on three main aspects, viz work distribution, methodological aspects and which G HG emissions to include. Sea transport is fuel efficient but needs updated figures to provide a meaningful baseline in order to demonstrate improvements in fuel efficiency due to improved whole design, more effective diesel engines and propulsion systems not to mention mandatory technical and operational measures.

• DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED CHINA identified three areas where methodology could be improved (1) the inability to track ship’s course on many occasions (2) using trip-based average speed to calculate average load, and (3) using the products of category-based averages of installed power, operating days, loads and specific fuel oil consumption (SFOC) to calculate average fuel consumption. GREECE described in detail, the deficiencies of utilising a bottom-up approach to estimate emissions citing the complexity inherent in such a model requiring a significant number of performance parameters which, if uncertain or erroneous, would render emissions estimates unreliable.

• AIM OF THE IMO GHG EMISSIONS UPDATE. The EW noted the views expressed at MEPC 64 in respect of the need for reliable, robust and reliable up-to-date data to support the study and to undertake it in coordination with the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice of the UNFCCC, taking into consideration the methodological work developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It was well recognised that there is an urgent requirement for information on the actual fuel consumption of ships highlighting the need for a bottom-up (ship activity) approach of the GHG emissions estimate as well as the top-down analysis which has been used in the past.

• DEFINITIONS. It was agreed that the Update Study should use the 2009 Study definitions which are consistent with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. However, the split between ‘international’ and ‘domestic’ needs to be defined in a manner consistent with the previous study in order to take account of international shipping that transits from one port to another in the same country whilst undertaking international trade.

• SCOPE. It was agreed that the emissions estimate would be for international shipping only and apply to ships of 100 GT and above, given that the international statistics are collated for such vessels.

• METHODOLOGY. After a long and somewhat tortuous debate, the EW agreed to recommend to the MEPC that both a top-down and bottom-up approach should be used in the Update Study to estimate GHG emissions from international shipping and also that the same approaches as those in the previous Study should be used. In adopting both approaches, the need for balancing the budget cost and time restrictions were acknowledged, as also was the compensating additional confidence gained from using alternative sources of data.

• FUEL CONVERSION FACTORS. It was agreed that for both approaches, the fuel to emission conversion factors should be the same as those used in the Second IMO GHG study as both these and the conversion factors used for EEDI and EEOI were within the tolerance provided in the 2006 Guidelines.

• INVENTORY OF GHG EMISSIONS FROM INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING. The EW agreed that the primary focus of the Update Study should be CO2 emission estimates for international shipping, and that should there be adequate resources, then the same substances as those estimated in the previous study should also be estimated. Of note, it will include Black Carbon, a particulate matter compound.

• WORK DISTRIBUTION. It was recalled that the Second IMO GHG Study 2009 (which was large in scope that this one), was undertaken by an international consortium of research institutes under the oversight of a Steering Committee that the Secretariat had been entrusted to establish. Work distribution for this Update Study will need to be transparent whilst enabling efficiency, cost effectiveness and not complicating the decision-making process vis-à-vis the envisaged timetable. It was decided to recommend to MEPC, the option of again establishing a Steering Committee, suitably geographically balanced (eg with reference to the five UN regions), and equitably to represent developing and developed countries. Relevant stakeholders should also be represented. The Steering Committee would:

(1) act as a focal point for the Committee;
(2) confirm that the study meets the TOR’s, review and monitor the progress of the Update Study; and
(3) provide input into the tendering process and approve the study outline.

• TIMETABLE. The EW noted that if the report of the Update Study is to be considered and approved by a target date of March 2014 for approval at MEPC 66, then the work should start no later than 1 August 2013. It was agreed that if a Steering Committee is not established by MEPC 65, the Secretariat will provide a brief progress report on the IMO Website. The EW decided to recommend that:

1. IMO Member States be invited to identify appropriate contractors (eg research institutes) by mid-June 2013 and that invitations to tender be forwarded to nominated contractors by the Secretariat by end June 2013;

2. Following input from the SC (if established), Secretariat should select the tender(s) to undertake the work with a view to award the contract by end July 2013; and

3. Contracts for the work issued by 1 August 2013 with aim of receiving draft report for review in order to submit to MEPC 66 by mid-January 2014.

• BUDGET AND STATUS OF CONTRIBUTIONS. So far, approximately US$300,000 has been raised from various donor Governments, including an EU contribution of 100,000 Euros to support IMO’s work on GHG emissions.

• MEPC 65. Convenes on w/c Monday 13 May 2013 when it will consider the Expert Workshop recommendations.

Captain Paddy McKnight END


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